[References] “Right/Conservative” and “Left” Libertarianism

Review: American Politics and Conservative Libertarianism Walter J. Nicgorski The Review of Politics, Vol. 31, No. 4 (Oct., 1969), pp. 534-537

CHRISTINA BEHRENDT (). Hilde Bojer (2004), Distributional Justice: Theory and Measurement, Basingstoke: Routledge, 151 pp., £55 hbk, ISBN 0 415 29824-5. Journal of Social Policy, 34, pp 323-324 doi:10.1017/S004727940529880X http://journals.cambridge.org.libezproxy.open.ac.uk/action/displayAbstract?aid=289492 “…In the last chapter of this section the concepts of Marxism and libertarianism as put forward by Nozick, Friedman and Hayek are summarized.”

Le libertarisme de gauche et la justice [The Libertarianism of the left and justice] Peter Vallentyne Revue économique, Vol. 50, No. 4, Économie normative (Jul., 1999), pp. 859-878 “Libertarian theories of justice hold that agents, at least initially, own themselves fully, and thus owe no service to others, except perhaps through voluntary action… theories are right libertarian in that they hold that natural resources are initially unowned and, under a broad range of realistic circumstances, can be privately appropriated without the consent of, or any significant payment to, the other members of society. Left libertarian theories, by contrast, hold that natural resources are owned by the members of society in some egalitarian manner, and may be appropriated only with their permission, or with a significant payment to them. I examine the main implications of self-ownership and the main approaches that left-libertarianism can take to the ownership of natural resources.”

Review: [untitled] Harvey Klehr The American Political Science Review, Vol. 73, No. 4 (Dec., 1979), pp. 1126-1126 The American as Anarchist: Reflections on Indigenous Radicalism. By David DeLeon. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979. Pp. xiii + 242…) “The factors in American life which DeLeon believes have made our society particularly open to anti-statism … have produced a variety of indigenous radical traditions: liberalism, right libertarianism and left libertarianism.” “DeLeon turns to the 1960s revival of radicalism and discerns elements in both the Students for a Democratic Society and the Young Americans for Freedom that hearken back, respectively, to left and right libertarianism.”

Review: Reconfiguring Socialism George Ross The Review of Politics, Vol. 58, No. 1 (Winter, 1996), pp. 189-192 Published by: Cambridge University Press for the University of Notre Dame du lac on behalf of Review of Politics “Kitschelt wants to account for the differential responses of European social democratic parties to the challenges of changes in political preferences in the 1980s in ‘advanced capitalist societies,’ primarily new ‘libertarian’ or ‘communitarian’ concerns. In their ‘left-libertarian’ or ‘right’ (pro-market) varieties these new preferences focus of the forms of decision-making and deeply felt issues about individual participation and identity.” “What happened, in general, was that the distribution of preferences changed as these new libertarians and communitarians permeated an older spectrum of pro-equality socialists pro-market capitalists and anti-democratic authoritarians. The change presents a major threat to most social democratic parties.”

Self-Ownership, Communism and Equality G. A. Cohen and Keith Graham Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes, Vol. 64, (1990), pp. 25-61 Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The Aristotelian Society “In this essay I argue that Marxism has failed to distinguish itself sufficiently thoroughly from what I shall cal ‘leftwing libertarianism’.” “A libertarian, in the present sense, is one who affirms the principle of self-ownership, which occupies a prominent place in the ideology of capitalism.” “The libertarian principle of self-ownership has been put to both progressive and reactionary use, in different historical periods.” “Libertarianism… may be combined with contrasting principles with respect to those productive resources which are not persons, to wit, the substances and powers of nature. As a result, libertarianism comes in both right- and left-wing versions. All libertarians say that each person has a fundamental entitlement to full property in himself, and, consequently, no fundamental entitlement to private property in anyone else.” “Right-wing libertarianism, of which Robert Nozick is an exponent, adds that self-owning persons can acquire similarly unlimited original rights in unequal amounts of external natural resources. Left-wing libertarianism is, by contrast, egalitarian with respect to initial shares in external resources…”

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